The theme of the correct design of citations in dissertations of borrowed elements has recently become highly discussed. More serious attention to plagiarism and several scandals associated with the theses of famous people led to stricter requirements for citation in scientific papers.
Dissertation without quoting is impossible. The thin line between plagiarism and quoting is in compliance with the rules described in the State Standards and methodological manuals. Unfortunately, some manuals do not provide accurate answers to citation questions, leaving gaps. The Young Scientist Publishing House continues to talk about the correct design of your work and in this material will remind the basic rules of scientific citation.
What is a citation in dissertation? Quoting is called:
borrowing a fragment of the text of the author;
borrowing formulas, provisions, illustrations, tables and other elements;
non-word, translated or paraphrased reproduction of a fragment of text;
analysis of the content of other publications in the text of the work.
The most important rule of citation in dissertations is to accompany the citation with a link to a specific source from the list of references. The absence of a reference in a quotation or the absence of a quotation in the presence of a reference is a gross design error. For example, in the publishing house “Young scientist” this may be a reason to return your article for revision.
How to competently arrange links to the works of other authors? You need to adhere to the following rules:
- Be sure to put quotes when literally rewriting source text. Otherwise, such a quote will become plagiarism.
- The text of the quotation must be complete. Arbitrary abbreviation is not allowed.
- When referring to the author, indicate his surname and initials. The initials are placed in front of the last name, for example, “M.T. Kalashnikov “or” S. Hawking. It is not necessary to write the names of the authors entirely, even if they are sufficiently well-known, initials are enough.
- Do not start a paragraph with a quote, initials or author’s last name.
- All references in the work are made out in the same style.
Such type of citation as paraphrase is widespread in scientific works. So called retelling quotes in your own words. In this case, reference to the author is also required, as well as the preservation of meaning in the retelling. Paraphrase is appropriate in the following cases:
- providing aggregated information with reference to several sources;
- a summary of the bulk theoretical concept;
- voluminous quotes not applicable to direct mention.